Uby 2012


index

AttestedVariety

AttestedVariety; admitted name
AttestedVariety; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AttestedVariety; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3092

Identifier: AttestedVariety   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A linguistic form for which there is evidence of present or past use. Attestation refers to something that is found in actual recorded usage, compared with the hypothetical predictions of grammar or the intuitive (but otherwise unsupported) observations of the linguist.[Crystal 2003: 41]
Source: [Crystal 2003: 41]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HumanLanguageVariety. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3092 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Citation

Citation; admitted name
Citation; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Citation; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3111

Identifier: Citation   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: The action of citing or quoting any words or written passage from a publication that allows others to locate and identify the original source. Typical details include the title, author's name, the journal title (for articles), publication date and page numbers used in research. [Oxford English Dictionary 2010] Note: This concept was included in order to facilitate linking to the bibliographic entries referenced in GOLD.
Source: [Oxford English Dictionary 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). For relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3111 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Complementizer

Complementizer; admitted name
Complementizer; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Complementizer; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3124

Identifier: Complementizer   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SubordinatingConnective

Definition: A complementizer is a connective which marks a complement clause [Crystal 1997: 75].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 75]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubordinatingConnective. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3124 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Compound

Compound; admitted name
Compound; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Compound; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3127

Identifier: Compound   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Morpheme

Definition: A term used widely in descriptive linguistic studies to refer to a linguistic unit which is composed of elements that function independently in other circumstances. [Crystal 2003: 92]
Source: [Crystal 2003: 92]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Morpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3127 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Conjunction

Conjunction; admitted name
Conjunction; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Conjunction; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3132

Identifier: Conjunction   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: CoordinatingConnective

Definition: A term used in the grammatical classification of words to refer to an item or a process whose primary function is to connect words or other constructions. The conventional subclassification of these 'connective' items distinguishes co-ordinating conjunctions (e.g. and, or, but) and subordinating conjunctions (e.g. because, when, unless) -- also referred to as 'co-ordinators' and 'subordinators' respectively. [Crystal 2008: 101]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 101]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CoordinatingConnective. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3132 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Determiner

Determiner; admitted name
Determiner; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Determiner; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3159

Identifier: Determiner   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A Determiner is a part of speech whose members belong to a class of noun modifiers and express the reference, including quantity, of a noun [Crystal 1997: 112].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 112]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3159 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Expletive

Expletive; admitted name
Expletive; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Expletive; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3187

Identifier: Expletive   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: An expletive (also known as a dummy word) is a part of speech whose members have no meaning, but complete a sentence to make it grammatical [Crystal 1997: 127].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 127]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3187 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FeminineGender

FeminineGender; admitted name
FeminineGender; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeminineGender; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3197

Identifier: FeminineGender   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: GenderProperty

Definition: A gender property established on the basis of agreement, to which nouns may be assigned if 1) they inherently denote females. Additionally, but not necessarily, nouns may be assigned this value if: 2) their formal properties (morphological or phonological) lead them to be assigned to the same agreement pattern as other nouns within the language that have female denotation. 3) they are arbitrarily assigned to the same agreement pattern as other nouns in the language that have female denotation. [Corbett 1991]
Source: [Corbett 1991]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3197 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FirstPerson

FirstPerson; admitted name
FirstPerson; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FirstPerson; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3198

Identifier: FirstPerson   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: PersonProperty

Definition: First is a person property that refers minimally to the speaker. It may also refer to the speaker combined with either the addressee or the non-participant or both, allowing for the following subdivisions: a) first person b) first person inclusive c) first person exclusive [Cysouw 2003].
Source: [Cysouw 2003]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3198 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


GenderProperty

GenderProperty; admitted name
GenderProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3217

Identifier: GenderProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: GenderProperty is the class of properties that are assigned to nouns on the basis of their inherent properties by an AssignmentSystem and required by the syntax to appear on the target in an AgreementSystem. Gender may but need not be assigned on the basis of sex [Corbett 1991].
Source: [Corbett 1991]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3217 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LexicalizedConcept

LexicalizedConcept; admitted name
LexicalizedConcept; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LexicalizedConcept; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3295

Identifier: LexicalizedConcept   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Grammatical or semantic category expressed by a lexical item, e.g. English 'make' + 'dead' together are lexicalized as 'kill', in German 'tot' + 'machen' [are lexicalized as] 'töten', or the close linking of lexical items in an idiomatic phrase. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 129]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 129]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SemanticUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3295 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MasculineGender

MasculineGender; admitted name
MasculineGender; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MasculineGender; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3312

Identifier: MasculineGender   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: GenderProperty

Definition: A gender property established on the basis of agreement, to which nouns may be assigned based on semantic or formal criteria. In semantic gender systems, nouns belonging to the masculine gender typically denote male humans as well as nouns meeting certain physical criteria. Some gender systems differentiate masculine nouns from all other nouns (e.g. masculine/other or male human/other), while others differentiate masculine, feminine and neuter nouns or several different gender classes. [Corbett 1991: 30]
Source: [Corbett 1991: 30]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3312 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NeuterGender

NeuterGender; admitted name
NeuterGender; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NeuterGender; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3336

Identifier: NeuterGender   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: GenderProperty

Definition: A gender property established on the basis of agreement, to which nouns may be assigned, either by a semantic rule, if they belong to the semantic residue of the assignment system, or by a formal rule, if assignment depends on inflectional class membership. Typically, this means that the neuter gender may cover some inanimates and possibly some portion of lower order animates. Note: Although in familiar Indo-European languages the term neuter gender may be part of a system with three or less values, it can be used for systems containing more than three gender values (e.g. Bininj Gunwok). [Kibort and Corbett 2008a]
Source: [Kibort and Corbett 2008a]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3336 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Noun

Noun; admitted name
Noun; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Noun; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3347

Identifier: Noun   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A term used in the grammatical classification of words, traditionally defines as the "name of a person, place or thing," but the vagueness associated with the notions of "name" and "thing" (e.g. is 'beauty' a thing?) has led linguistic descriptions to analyze this class in terms of the formal and functional criteria of syntax and morphology. In linguistic terms, nouns are items which display certain types of inflection (e.g. of case or number), have a specific distribution (e.g. they may follow prepositions but not, say, modals), and perform a specific syntactic function (e.g. as subject or object of a sentence). Nouns are generally subclassified into common and proper types, and analyzed in terms of number, gender, case and countability. [Crystal 2008: 320]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 320]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3347 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PTKANT

PTKANT; admitted name
PTKANT; Source: http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/projekte/corplex/TagSets/stts-table.html; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2891

Identifier: PTKANT   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: STTS tag for answer particle
Source: http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/projekte/corplex/TagSets/stts-table.html

Example: ja, nein, danke, bitte; lit.: yes, no, thanks, please
Source: http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/projekte/corplex/TagSets/stts-table.html

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2891 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, German


Participle

Participle; admitted name
Participle; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Participle; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3371

Identifier: Participle   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A participle is a word which participates as both a verb (by showing tense) and as an adjective (by showing adjectival inflection). In modern usage, the term refers to a non-finite part of the verb other than the infinitive (independent of the function of these forms in the sentence). [Bauer 2004: 82]
Source: [Bauer 2004: 82]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3371 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Particle

Particle; admitted name
Particle; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Particle; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3372

Identifier: Particle   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A term used to refer to an invariable item with grammatical function, especially one which does not readily fit into a standard classification of parts of speech. [Crystal 1997: 279-280]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 279-280]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3372 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PastTense

PastTense; admitted name
PastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3378

Identifier: PastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: A value of Tense Feature assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as anterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'past', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'anterior'. The anterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from Reichenbach (1947), who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. 'Perfect' tense meanings are created when the reference point is separated and moved away from the event time, thus altering the viewing of the temporal location of the event even though the event's actual location with respect to the deictic centre remains the same. A common instance of an anterior temporal relationship obtaining in a 'perfect' context occurs when the reference point is moved away from the event time and located instead at the moment of speech. The event time is still anterior to the moment of speech, but it is viewed against a stretch of time which began at the event and continues up to the moment of speech --- e.g. the English I have read this book, I have seen John --- hence the interpretation that the event has an effect or is in some way still relevant at the moment of speech. In some languages (e.g. English) this tense meaning is labelled as (one of the uses of the) Present Perfect, in others (e.g. Polish) this meaning may be collapsed with the 'simple' anterior meaning and labelled simply as Past. Typically, for a tense value to be labelled as Past Tense, the tense meaning has to minimally express the anterior temporal relationship, although it may additionally express other temporal relationships or aspectual and/or modal meanings. For example, when the usage of the Past Tense value is restricted to a semantically defined domain, it is conventional to add a further qualification to the label of the Past Tense value (e.g. Past Imperfective --- when the anterior temporal relationship is necessarily combined with an aspectual meaning of the Imperfective Aspect value, and grammaticalised as a single [Tense-Aspect-Mood (TAM)] category in the language). [Kibort 2008c: 4]
Source: [Kibort 2008c: 4]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3378 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PersonProperty

PersonProperty; admitted name
PersonProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3385

Identifier: PersonProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: PersonProperty is the class of properties with a deictic dimension, interpreted relative to the speaker, encoding the participants in a speech situation. Usually a three-way contrast is found: firstPerson (speaker), secondPerson (addressee), and thirdPerson (neither speaker nor addressee). Other distinctions within this feature include: inclusive/exclusive and proximative/obviative. [Crystal 1997: 285-286]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 285-286]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3385 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Predicator

Predicator; admitted name
Predicator; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Predicator; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3415

Identifier: Predicator   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Predicator is the class of syntactic words that are fundamentally relation inducing. That is, predicators license argument structure [Anderson 1997: 14]. Verbs are quintessential predicators, though other categories, such as determiners and some nouns, are also predicative in nature.
Source: [Anderson 1997: 14]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3415 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PresentTense

PresentTense; admitted name
PresentTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PresentTense; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3421

Identifier: PresentTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: A value of Tense Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as simultaneous with the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'present', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'simultaneous'. It is important to note --- for all tense values, but in particular for the Present Tense --- that the 'times' which are used to locate the event, the deictic centre, and the reference point, may or may not be 'points' on the time line. Conventionally, these concepts are considered neutral with regard to whether they are points or intervals of time longer than a point. In a formal model of tense meanings they could, for example, be represented as sets (of points): in order to capture temporal distinctions, the notion of an event being 'simultaneous with the moment of speech', may be understood as (the set of) event time (points) and (the set of) speech time (points) having a non-empty intersection. Hence, this semantic model of the Present Tense value may include the interpretation of the present as 'universal' or 'generic'. The simultaneous temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. 'Perfect' tense meanings are created when the reference point is separated and moved away from the event time, thus altering the viewing of the temporal location of the event even though the event's actual location with respect to the deictic centre remains the same. A common instance of a simultaneous temporal relationship obtaining in a 'perfect' context occurs when the reference point is moved away from the event time and located instead before the moment of speech. The event time is still simultaneous with the moment of speech, but it is viewed against a stretch of time which began at the reference point and continues up to the moment of speech --- e.g. the English I have lived here [for ten years] --- hence the interpretation that the event which began in the past extends up to the moment of speech. In some languages (e.g. English) this tense meaning is labelled as (one of the uses of the) Present Perfect, in others (e.g. Polish) this meaning may be collapsed with the 'simple' simultaneous meaning and labelled simply as Present. Typically, for a tense value to be labelled as Present Tense, the tense meaning has to minimally express the simultaneous temporal relationship, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings. [Kibort 2008c: 4-5]
Source: [Reichenbach 1947; Kibort 2008c: 4-5]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3421 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SecondPerson

SecondPerson; admitted name
SecondPerson; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SecondPerson; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3464

Identifier: SecondPerson   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: PersonProperty

Definition: SecondPerson is a person property that refers minimally to the addressee [Crystal 1997: 285; Cysouw 2003: 75].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 285; Cysouw 2003: 75]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3464 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SemanticAssignmentSystem

SemanticAssignmentSystem; admitted name
SemanticAssignmentSystem; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SemanticAssignmentSystem; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3466

Identifier: SemanticAssignmentSystem   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: FeatureAssignmentSystem

Definition: For natural language understanding, the process of fine-grain semantic role assignment is one of the prominent steps, which provides semantic relations between constituents. The sense and sense relations between constituents provide the core meaning of a sentence. Abstract semantic roles include thematic roles, such as agent, theme, and instrument, and secondary roles such as location, time, and manner. [Chen and You 2004: 1]
Source: [Chen and You 2004: 1]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureAssignmentSystem. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3466 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Subcategorization Frame Sample Sentence

Subcategorization Frame Sample Sentence; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4630

Identifier: subcategorizationFrameSampleSentence   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A sample sentence that illustrates a particular subcategorization frame; the syntactic arguments specified in the subcategorization frame should all be realized in the sample sentence.
Source: Adapted from FrameNet, see https://framenet.icsi.berkeley.edu/fndrupal/

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4630 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SubordinateClause

SubordinateClause; admitted name
SubordinateClause; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubordinateClause; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3496

Identifier: SubordinateClause   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Clause

Definition: A clause which does not constitute a complete sentence in itself, but must be connected with or attached to an independent clause. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 206]
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 206]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Clause. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3496 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


TenseProperty

TenseProperty; admitted name
TenseProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3519

Identifier: TenseProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Following [Comrie 1985: vii], we take tense to be the grammaticalisation of location in time. Tense Property is assigned to clauses on the basis of semantics: a tense value is selected for the clause from the range of tense values available in the given language. Tense Property is typically realised on the verb, but it may be found expressed multiply on different elements in the same clause. For example, tense may be found on more than one element of the verbal complex (e.g. in Kayardild [Evans 2003] or Paamese [Crowley 2002: 68], or on verbs as well as on certain spatial and temporal adverbs and certain prepositions in the same clause (e.g. in Malagasy [Randriamasimanana 1981: 355-367], [Keenan and Polinsky 1998: 566-567]. In the given language, the values of the Tense Property are assigned to the designated elements as a consequence of semantic choice, and all the available options of particular tense values expressing particular tense meanings can be described with a Tense Assignment System for that language. Since no languages have been found for which tense values are assigned by a Tense Distribution System (i.e. contextually, through agreement or government), Tense Property is not a Morphosyntactic Property. Instead, it is a Morphosemantic Property only.
Source: [Comrie 1985: vii; Evans 2003; Crowley 2002: 68; Randriamasimanana 1981: 355-367; Keenan and Polinsky 1998: 566-567]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosemanticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3519 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ThirdPerson

ThirdPerson; admitted name
ThirdPerson; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ThirdPerson; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3526

Identifier: ThirdPerson   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: PersonProperty

Definition: Third Person is a person property that refers to the non-participant (other than the speaker and the addressee) [Crystal 1997: 285].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 285]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3526 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


VVIZU

VVIZU; admitted name
VVIZU; Source: http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/projekte/corplex/TagSets/stts-table.html; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2897

Identifier: VVIZU   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: STTS tag for infinitive + "zu", main verb
Source: http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/projekte/corplex/TagSets/stts-table.html

Example: anzukommen, loszulassen; lit.: to_come, to_release
Source: http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/projekte/corplex/TagSets/stts-table.html

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2897 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, German


VerbalParticle

VerbalParticle; admitted name
VerbalParticle; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VerbalParticle; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3546

Identifier: VerbalParticle   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Particle

Definition: Verbal particles are a closed class of uninflected words that co-occur with certain verbs. In some cases the verbal particles may have clearly distinguishable locative or directional meanings. In some languages some or all of the verbal particles also occur as (and are historically derived from) adpositions. In other languages, however, for example Ga'anda, the verbal particles are entirely distinct from adpositions. [Schachter 1985: 45-46]
Source: [Schachter 1985: 45-46]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Particle. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3546 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


adjectival Base

adjectival Base; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4616

Identifier: adjectivalBase   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Is a: base

Definition: Used in morphology: an adjective to which an affix attaches or to which a morphological process applies.
Source: Adapted from Glottopedia: http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Base_%28in_morphology%29

Example: From the English adjective institutional it is possible to form the verb institutionalize by adding the verbalizing suffix -ize; in this example, institutional is the adjectivalBase.
Source: Adapted from Glottopedia: http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Derivation_%28morphology%29

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4616 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


adjective phrase

adjective phrase; standardized name
AP; admitted name
adjectival phrase; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2258

Identifier: adjectivePhrase   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: phrase headed by an adjective
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2258 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


adverb phrase

adverb phrase; standardized name
RP; admitted name
adverbial phrase; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2259

Identifier: adverbPhrase   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: phrase headed by an adverb
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2259 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


adverbial Complement

adverbial Complement; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4639

Identifier: adverbialComplement   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: An adverbial that is lexically governed by a verb (or a noun or adjective) and that is obligatory.
Source: Adapted from Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 7.2f

Example: Somebody put the plate on the table. (vs. *Somebody put the plate.)
Source: Adapted from Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 7.2f

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4639 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


antonym term

antonym term; preferred name
antonym term; Source: ISO 30042; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-83

Identifier: antonymTerm   Type: complex/open   Origin: ISO 30042   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A term or lexeme whose concept or sense constitutes the opposite of the concept represented by a second term or lexeme.
Source: ISO12620

Example: GO X NOGO (gauges); in tolerance X out of tolerance
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

Explanation: Although few databases would document finer distinctions, antonyms can be further categorized as: complements--terms whose concept constitutes the reciprocal value of the concept represented by a second term, whereby the sum of the complementary concepts constitute a kind of whole; example: yin/yang; drag coefficient/free-running characteristic contrasts--terms or words whose concept exhibits marked difference from or opposition to the concept represented by a second term; example: red : green; black : white Links to antonyms can focus on either the concept level (term entry or sense level) or on the term that represents the antonym concept (term section level).
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-83 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


auxiliary

auxiliary; standardized name
auxiliary; Source: MAF; data element name
auxiliary verb; Source: SEW; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1244

Identifier: auxiliary   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: verb

Definition: Part of speech referring to the set of verbs, subordinate to the main lexical verb which help to make distinction in mood, aspect, voice etc.
Source: Crystal 2003

Example: Be
Source:

Note: The definition could be refined stylistically: Part of speech referring to the set of verbs used as subordinates to the main lexical verb which help to distinguish mood, aspect, voice etc. One could then cite the source as "Based on Crystal 2003".

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1244 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


bare Infinitive

bare Infinitive; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4163

Identifier: bareInfinitive   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Lexical Resources

Definition: The non-finite verb form infinitive used without "to", as opposed to an infinitive used with "to". The German equivalent is an infinitive used without "zu".
Source: Randolph Quirk et al., A grammar of Contemporary English (Longman)

Example: English: He saw her come.
Source: Randolph Quirk et al., A grammar of Contemporary English (Longman)

Example: German: Wir sahen ihn kommen.
Source:

Explanation: The verbs taking the bare infinitive in the active are the verbs of perception, e.g. hear, see, watch
Source: Randolph Quirk et al., A grammar of Contemporary English (Longman)

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4163 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


base

base; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4612

Identifier: base   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A bigger unit to which an affix attaches or to which a morphological process applies; used in morphology.
Source: Glottopedia: http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Base_%28in_morphology%29

Example: By adding the suffix -al to the noun institution the adjective institutional is formed; in this example, institution is the base.
Source: Glottopedia: http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Derivation_%28morphology%29

Explanation: Adding an affix to a base is one of the major types of morphological operation (called derivation) by which new words are formed
Source: Glottopedia: http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Derivation_%28morphology%29

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4612 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


be

be; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1246

Identifier: be   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Verb used to link the subject of a sentence and its noun or adjective complement or complementing phrase in certain languages. This verb could be used also to form the passive voice.
Source: www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=be -> 4)

Example: I am happy !
Source: zeus.inalf.fr Base

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1246 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


case

case; standardized name
case; Source: Przepiórkowski, A. (2004). The IPI PAN Corpus: Preliminary version. Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2720

Identifier: case   Type: complex/closed   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Case [case] is a grammatical category appropriate for inflecting grammatical classes displaying nominal or adjectival features, as well as for prepositions where case is understood as a governed case.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2720 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


accusative case

accusative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2724

Identifier: acc   Type: simple   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Accusative [acc] is a value of the grammatical category of case paradigmatically appropriate for structural objects.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2724 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Polish


dative case

dative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2723

Identifier: dat   Type: simple   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Dative [dat] is a value of the grammatical category of case paradigmatically appropriate for oblique objects and experiencers.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2723 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Polish


genitive case

genitive case; standardized name
genitive case; Source: Przepiórkowski, A. (2004). The IPI PAN Corpus: Preliminary version. Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2722

Identifier: gen   Type: simple   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Genitive [gen] is a value of the grammatical category of case paradigmatically appropriate for possessors, partitives, non-inherent case arguments of gerunds and structural objects under sentential negation.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2722 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Polish


nominative case

nominative case; admitted name
nominative; Source: Przepiórkowski, A. (2004). The IPI PAN Corpus: Preliminary version. Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2721

Identifier: nom   Type: simple   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Nominative [nom] is a value of the grammatical category of case paradigmatically appropriate for subjects.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2721 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Polish


circumposition

circumposition; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1906

Identifier: circumposition   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: adposition

Definition: Adposition which consists of two parts which are positioned ahead and after the adpositional foci.
Source: Academic grammar of new Persian 2005
Note: New Persian circumpositions are classified as simple and genitival circumpositions.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1906 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


common noun

common noun; standardized name
common noun; Source: ISO 12620:1999; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-385

Identifier: commonNoun   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 12620:1999   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A noun or adjective denoting a class of objects.
Source: ISO12620

Example: continent
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text)

Explanation: ...
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text)

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-385 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


comparative particle

comparative particle; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1922

Identifier: comparativeParticle   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: particle

Definition: Particle used to compare.
Source: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1922 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


complement

complement; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1257

Identifier: complement   Type: complex/open   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Syntax

Definition: - A noun phrase that follows a copula or similar verb, as for example an idiot in the sentence He is an idiot. - A clause that serves as the subject or direct object of a verb or the direct object of a preposition, as for example that he would be early in the sentence I hoped that he would be early.
Source: www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=complement
Note: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1257 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


context

context; preferred name
context; Source: ISO 12620:1999; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-149

Identifier: context   Type: complex/open   Origin: 12620; 1951   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A text which illustrates a concept or the use of a designation.
Source: ISO12620

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-149 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


coordinating conjunction

coordinating conjunction; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1262

Identifier: coordinatingConjunction   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: conjunction

Definition: Conjunction that links constituents.
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsACoordinatingConjunction.htm
Note: Usually the linked contituents are equal in rank and fulfill identical functions.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1262 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


coreness

coreness; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4461

Identifier: coreness   Type: complex/closed   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: Used in FrameNet to classify semantic arguments (i.e. frame elements in FrameNet) in terms of how central they are to a particular predicate (i.e. frame in FrameNet).
Source: Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice, p. 19

Example: Four levels of coreness are distinguished in FrameNet: core, peripheral, and extra-thematic, core-unexpressed
Source: Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice, p. 19

Explanation: In FrameNet, coreType and its different values cover the semantic spirit of the commonly made distinction between arguments and adjuncts, or arguments and modifiers.
Source: Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice, p. 18

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4461 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: anySimpleType


core

core; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4462

Identifier: core   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: In FrameNet, core frame elements are conceptually necessary for the definition of the frame (i.e. predicate), required to distinguish this frame from others. In FrameNet, only core frame elements are inherited by descendant frames.
Source: adapted from Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice, p. 19

Example: In the Revenge frame, Avenger, Punishment, Offender, Injury, and Injured party are all core frame elements, because an avenging event necessarily includes these participants. One cannot imagine an act of revenge that is not preceded by a (perceived) offense or one that is not directed against anybody.
Source: Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice, p. 19

Explanation: Obligatory complements (as opposed to adjuncts) are typically core elements.
Source: adapted from Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4462 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


core Unexpressed

core Unexpressed; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4464

Identifier: coreUnexpressed   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: In FrameNet, coreUnexpressed frame elements are conceptually necessary for the definition of the frame (i.e. predicate), required to distinguish this frame from others. In contrast to core frame elements, coreUnexpressed frame elements are not necessarily inherited by descendant frames.
Source: adapted from Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice, p. 21

Example: I’ll do [the vacuuming Act]. In this example of the Intentionally_act frame, the Act frame element is coreUnexpressed, because in the many child frames of Intentionally_act such as Choosing, Perception_active, etc., the idea of an Act is as relevant as in the Intentionally_act parent frame. However, in the child frames this frame element is absorbed by the lexical units in the frame and cannot be separately expressed.
Source: adapted from Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice, p. 21

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4464 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


extra Thematic

extra Thematic; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4465

Identifier: extraThematic   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: In FrameNet, extraThematic frame elements do not conceptually belong to the frames they appear in. Instead, they belong to another frame, e.g., a larger frame including the reported event.
Source: adapted from Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice, p. 20

Example: "Lennert, another sweetie in my life, cooked [me] dinner, mmm mmm good." In this example the extraThematic frame element [me] belongs to the larger Benefaction frame, rather than to the Cooking_creation frame.
Source: adapted from Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice, p. 20

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4465 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


peripheral

peripheral; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4463

Identifier: peripheral   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: In FrameNet, peripheral frame elements are not specific to the frame, but provide additional information, such as time and place; they are roughly similar to adjuncts.
Source: adapted from Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice, p. 20

Example: Peripheral frame elements mark such notions as Time, Place, Manner, Means, Degree, and the like.
Source: adapted from Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice, p. 20

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4463 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


corpus

corpus; preferred name
corpus; Source: CMDI; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4361

Identifier: corpus   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: Metadata

Definition: Indication of the class of a resource as a corpus.
Source: NaLiDa

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4361 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


creation tool

creation tool; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2511

Identifier: creationTool   Type: complex/open   Origin: CLARIN   Profile: Metadata

Definition: Indicates the tool with help of which the resource or the annotations in the resource were created.
Source: CLARIN

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2511 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Bulgarian, Catalan, Croatian, Danish, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Latvian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish

Data type: string


cross reference

cross reference; preferred name
cross reference; Source: ISO 30042; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-164

Identifier: crossReference   Type: complex/open   Origin: ISO 30042   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A pointer field or record used in a data collection to direct the user to another related location, e.g., another record.
Source: ISO12620

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-164 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


crosslingual Sense Alignment

crosslingual Sense Alignment; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4628

Identifier: crosslingualSenseAlignment   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: The linking of equivalent senses from different languages via an LMF SenseAxis instance.
Source: Adapted from LMF.

Example: The linking of the French "riviere" and the English "river" is an example of a crosslingualSenseAlignment.
Source: Adapted from LMF.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4628 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


declarative clause

declarative clause; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2300

Identifier: declarativeClause   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: clause referring to the expression of a statement
Source:
Note: Usually the term is seen in contrast to interrogative and imperative

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2300 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


degree

degree; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2779

Identifier: degree   Type: complex/closed   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Degree [degree] is a grammatical category appropriate for grammatical classes of adjectives and adverbs expressing the gradation in the level of intensity of the named feature.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2779 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


comparative degree

comparative degree; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2781

Identifier: com   Type: simple   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Comparative [com] is a value of the grammatical category of degree appropriate for adjectives and adverbs expressing a higher than basic level of intensity of the named feature.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2781 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Polish


positive degree

positive degree; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2780

Identifier: pos   Type: simple   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Positive [pos] is a value of the grammatical category of degree appropriate for adjectives and adverbs expressing the basic level of intensity of the named feature.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2780 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Polish


superlative degree

superlative degree; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2782

Identifier: sup   Type: simple   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Superlative [sup] is a value of the grammatical category of degree appropriate for adjectives and adverbs expressing the highest level of intensity of the named feature.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2782 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Polish


demonstrative determiner

demonstrative determiner; standardized name
demonstrative adjective; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1269

Identifier: demonstrativeDeterminer   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: determiner

Definition: Determiner used to point to an entity in the situation or elsewhere in a sentence.
Source: Crystal 2003

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1269 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


demonstrative pronoun

demonstrative pronoun; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1270

Identifier: demonstrativePronoun   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: pronoun

Definition: Pronoun used to point to an entity in the situation or elsewhere in a sentence.
Source: Crystal 2003

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1270 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


derivative

derivative; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4611

Identifier: derivative   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A lexeme that is related to another lexeme by a rule of derivation.
Source: Glottopedia: http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Derivative

Example: From the English verb institute it is possible to form the noun institution by suffixation of -ion: then, institution is a derivative of institute
Source: Glottopedia: http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Derivation_%28morphology%29

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4611 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


determiner

determiner; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1272

Identifier: determiner   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Word or affix that belongs to a class of noun modifiers that expresses the reference, including quantity, of a noun.
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsADeterminer.htm
Note: some theories use to call a determiner an "attributive pronoun"

Example: All these houses
Source: www.atilf.fr DERIVATION GRAMM. 2.b

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1272 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


direct object

direct object; admitted name
direct object; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1274

Identifier: directObject   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Syntax

Definition: A noun, pronoun, or noun phrase whose referent receives the direct action of a verb.
Source: www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=direct+object

Example: A book is the direct object in the sentence ' They bought Anne a book'.
Source: csli-publications.stanford.edu/LFG/4/lee/lfg99-lee.html

Explanation: A direct object is a grammatical relation that exhibits a combination of certain independent syntactic properties, such as the following: - The usual grammatical characteristics of the patient of typically transitive verbs - A particular case marking - A particular clause position - The conditioning of an agreement affix on the verb - The capability of becoming the clause subject in passivization - The capability of reflexivization
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsADirectObject.htm

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1274 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


domainFrequency

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-238

Identifier: domainFrequency   Type: simple   Origin: ?   Profile: Terminology

Definition: The frequency of a term within a specific subject field.
Source: ISO12620

Example: ?
Source: ISO12620

Explanation: ...
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-238 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


encyclopedic information (vernacular)

encyclopedic information (vernacular); admitted name
encyclopedic information (vernacular); Source: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
ev; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3705

Identifier: encyclopedic_info_vernacular   Type: complex/open   Origin: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Language Codes, Language Resource Ontology, Lexical Semantics

Definition: This field contains the vernacular description of any pertinent encyclopedic information related to the lexeme or headword, subentry, or sense. This is intended for use in a monolingual dictionary, but can be used in diglot and triglot dictionaries as well. Use capitalization and punctuation as needed.
Source: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3705 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


etymology

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-221

Identifier: etymology   Type: complex/open   Origin: ?   Profile: Terminology

Definition: Information on the origin of a word and the development of its meaning.
Source: ISO12620

Example: term: aspirin etymology: from acetyl + spiraeic acid (old name for salicylic acid).
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

Explanation: Detailed etymology is primarily a concern of lexicology, although terminology is in some instances concerned with these features, particularly with respect to the coining of neologisms in language planning and term formation environments.
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-221 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


example (vernacular)

example (vernacular); admitted name
example (vernacular); Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
xv; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3778

Identifier: example_vernacular   Type: complex/open   Origin: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Semantic Content Representation, Language Codes, Lexical Semantics

Definition: Used to give an example or illustrative sentence in the vernacular to exemplify each separate sense and demonstrate legitimacy of translation equivalents. Should be short and natural. Use capitalization and punctuation as needed.
Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3778 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


extensional definition

extensional definition; preferred name
extensional definition; Source: ISO 30042; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-171

Identifier: extensionalDefinition   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 30042   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A description of a concept by enumerating all of its subordinate concepts under one criterion of subdivison.
Source: ISO12620

Example: planets in the solar system: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.
Source: Mitre

Explanation: ...
Source: Mitre

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-171 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


external reference

external reference; standardized name
hook; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1975

Identifier: externalReference   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Reference to a particular node of an external descriptive system.
Source: LMF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1975 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


external system

external system; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1974

Identifier: externalSystem   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Reference to an external descriptive system.
Source: LMF
Note: For instance, the reference from a lexicon to an external system like SUMO.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1974 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


frequency

frequency; preferred name
frequency; Source: ISO 12620:1999; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-233

Identifier: frequency   Type: complex/closed   Origin: ?   Profile: Terminology

Definition: The relative commonness with which a term occurs.
Source: ISO12620

Explanation: The definitions of these items are self-explanatory. Designation of a term with respect to frequency can be based on subjective criteria, or it can reflect computer analysis of text corpora, in which case it can also be expressed as a ratio of occurrences per a set number of words in the text corpus.
Source: 1951

Note: SEW: The explanation from 1951 is perhaps confusing and might be removed here.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-233 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


geographical variant

geographical variant; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1851

Identifier: geographicalVariant   Type: complex/open   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Description of a specific form used in a certain region as opposed to another form used in another region
Source: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1851 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


grammatical function

grammatical function; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1296

Identifier: grammaticalFunction   Type: complex/closed   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Syntax

Definition: [Needs to be finalized]
Source: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1296 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


grammatical number

grammatical number; preferred name
grammatical number; Source: ISO 30042; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-251

Identifier: grammaticalNumber   Type: complex/closed   Origin: ISO 30042   Profile: Terminology

Definition: In many languages, the grammatical distinction that indicates the number of objects referred to by the term or word.
Source: ISO12620

Example: Example 1: The child eats his dinner. The children eat their dinner. singular: -- child is a singular noun child is a third person singular verb plural: -- children is a plural noun eat is a third person plural verb Example 2: mass noun: -- smoke, water, food.
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

Explanation: In situations where the singular and the plural of a term do not necessarily designate the same concept, the singular and plural should be reported in separate entries in order to retain the concept-orientation of the database.
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-251 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


plural

plural; preferred name
plural; Source: ISO 12620:1999; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-253

Identifier: plural   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 12620:1999   Profile: Terminology

Definition: The form of a term or word (usually of a noun) used to designate more than one object.
Source: ISO12620

Example: boys
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text)

Explanation: ...
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text)

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-253 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


singular

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-252

Identifier: singular   Type: simple   Origin: ?   Profile: Terminology

Definition: The form of a term or word (usually of a noun) used to designate one object.
Source: ISO12620

Example: boy
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text)

Explanation: ...
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text)

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-252 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


have

have; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1299

Identifier: have   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: The verb have as an auxiliary.
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnAuxiliaryVerb.htm

Example: I have eaten
Source: www.atilf.inalf.fr Tlfi, NOMBRE

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1299 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


hyphenation

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-264

Identifier: hyphenation   Type: complex/open   Origin: ?   Profile: Terminology

Definition: The division of a word in writing, such as at the end of a line, according to a given set of rules.
Source: ISO12620

Example: pho-ne-ti-cian.
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

Explanation: Words are hyphenated in order to block text efficiently and attractively for printing. Rules for syllabification and hyphenation can differ in some languages and in some situations.
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-264 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


idiom

idiom; preferred name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-351

Identifier: idiom   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 12620   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A group of words in a fixed order that have a particular meaning that is different from the meanings of each word understood on its own.
Source: ISO12620:1999

Example: "to cut corners", meaning to rush a job without taking care to do it well, derived from the notion of cutting across someone's property at a corner instead of staying on the proper and legal sidewalk or street
Source: SEW

Explanation: ...
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-351 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


incorporated Semantic Argument

incorporated Semantic Argument; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4151

Identifier: incorporatedSemanticArgument   Type: simple   Origin: Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice.   Profile: Lexical Resources

Definition: Some verbs incorporate information about a particular semantic argument (a semantic argument corresponds to a Frame Element in FrameNet terminology) in their definition: such a semantic argument is called incorporated in FrameNet.
Source: Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice.

Example: In the case of smile, grimace, frown, pout, and scowl, the affected body part is not separately expressed; it is said to be incorporated. Likewise, in the FrameNet Placing frame, many verbs incorporate the Goal (i.e. the place where the Theme ends up) such as bag.v, bin.v, bottle.v, box.v, cage.v, crate.v, file.v, garage.v.
Source: Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice.

Explanation: Note that it is still possible to further specify the incorporated semantic argument explicitly, as in They bottled the wine in custom-made blue bottles.
Source: Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4151 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


indefinite determiner

indefinite determiner; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1307

Identifier: indefiniteDeterminer   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: determiner

Definition: Determiner not capable of identification.
Source: Gil Francopoulo
Note: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1307 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


indefinite pronoun

indefinite pronoun; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1309

Identifier: indefinitePronoun   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: pronoun

Definition: Pronoun that does not allow reference.
Source: Gil Francopoulo

Example: Anybody, somebody
Source: www.atilf.fr IMPERSONNEL Gramm.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1309 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


infinitive particle

infinitive particle; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1896

Identifier: infinitiveParticle   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: particle

Definition: Particle used to express infinitive.
Source: MAF
Note: In English, this particle is "to" like in "to go".

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1896 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


ing Form

ing Form; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4108

Identifier: ingForm   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Morphosyntax

Definition: English verb forms ending in the inflectional suffix `-ing'.
Source: EAGLES recommendations on morphosyntax

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4108 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


intensional definition

intensional definition; preferred name
intensional definition; Source: ISO 30042; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-170

Identifier: intensionalDefinition   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 30042   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A definition which describes the intension of a concept by stating the superordinate concept and the delimiting characteristics.
Source: ISO12620

Example: See annex C, figures C.1, C.2, C.3.
Source: Mitre

Explanation: ...
Source: Mitre

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-170 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


interjection

interjection; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1318

Identifier: interjection   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Word or sound that expresses an emotion.
Source: www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html
Note: An interjection usually lacks grammatical connection.

Example: D'hoo !!!
Source: zeus.inalf.fr INTENSIF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1318 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


interrogative determiner

interrogative determiner; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1320

Identifier: interrogativeDeterminer   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: determiner

Definition: Determiner used to express a question.
Source: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1320 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


interrogative pronoun

interrogative pronoun; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1321

Identifier: interrogativePronoun   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: pronoun

Definition: Pronoun used to express a question.
Source: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1321 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


irreflexive personal pronoun

irreflexive personal pronoun; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3013

Identifier: irreflexivePersonalPronoun   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: personal pronoun

Definition: personal pronoun which is not reflexive
Source: STTS

Example: "ich" in German
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3013 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


label

label; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1857

Identifier: label   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Text attached to an element
Source: Gil Francopoulo

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1857 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


language identifier

language identifier; standardized name
language symbol; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-279

Identifier: languageIdentifier   Type: complex/open   Origin: ?   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A unique identifier in a language resource entry that indicates the name of a language.
Source: ISO12620

Example: The identifiers specified in ISO 639 should be used: en = English fr = French ru = Russian (russki) de = German (Deutsch) es = Spanish (Espanol)
Source: Mitre

Explanation: ...
Source: Mitre

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-279 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


lemma

lemma; preferred name
base form; admitted name
lemma; Source: ISO 12620:1999; data element name
base form; Source: common usage; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-286

Identifier: lemma   Type: complex/open   Origin: ISO 12620:1999   Profile: Terminology

Definition: The base form of a word or term that is used as the formal dictionary entry for the term.
Source: ISO12620

Example: child (children); dog (dogs); eat (ate, eaten)
Source: ISLE; 1951

Explanation: Note: For nouns, the base form is frequently the nominative singular form (in languages that show variation by case). for adjectives it is the positive form of the adjective, as opposed to the comparative, for instance. In some languages it is uninflected, whereas in others it is the masculine singular. For verbs, it is generally the infinitive rather than an inflected form.
Source: ISLE; 1951

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-286 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


lexeme

lexeme; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1325

Identifier: lexeme   Type: complex/open   Origin: ?   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Minimal unit of language which : has a semantic interpretation and embodies a distinct cultural concept.
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsALexeme.htm
Note: In LMF, a lexeme is not a Lexical Entry. A lexeme is a pair (Lexical Entry / Sense).

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1325 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


light verb

light verb; standardized name
support verb; admitted name
light verb; Source: http://www.panl10n.net/Presentations/Laos/RegionalConference/CorpusCollection/Tagset_and_Tagging_Urdu_Corpus.pdf; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3003

Identifier: lightVerb   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: verb

Definition: verb participating in a complex predication that has little semantic content of its own.
Source: wikipedia

Example: en: "take" in "I take a drive"
Source:

Example: ur: "کرنا" ("karnā") as in "صاف کرنا" ("şāf karnā") = lit. "clean make" = "clean"
Source: http://www.panl10n.net/Presentations/Laos/RegionalConference/CorpusCollection/Tagset_and_Tagging_Urdu_Corpus.pdf

Example: hi: "शुरू करना" ("śurū karnā") = lit. "beginning make" = "to begin"; "ख़त्म करना" ("xatm karnā") = lit. "finished make" = "to finish"; "बंद करना" ("band karnā") = lit. "closed make" = "to shut"; "साफ़ करना" ("sāf karnā") = lit. "clean make" = "to clean"
Source: Rupert Snell, Simon Weightman: Teach Yourself Hindi, Hodder Education, London, 2003, p. 93 (7.6)

Explanation: A light verb behaves similarly to a copula. In Hindi, copula constructions form the intransitive counterparts to the transitive conjunct verbs: "वह कमरा साफ़ करता है" ("vah kamrā sāf kartā hai") = lit. "he room clean do is" = "he cleans the room" (transitive) vs. "कमरा साफ़ होता है" ("kamrā sāf hotā hai") = lit. "room clean be is" = "the room is clean" (intransitive).
Source: Rupert Snell, Simon Weightman: Teach Yourself Hindi, Hodder Education, London, 2003, p. 93 (7.6)

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3003 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


location

location; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2237

Identifier: location   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: position of something
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2237 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


main verb

main verb; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1400

Identifier: mainVerb   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: verb

Definition: Main verb in contrast to a modal or an auxiliary.
Source: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1400 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


modal

modal; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1329

Identifier: modal   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: verb

Definition: Verb form that is usually used with another verb to express ideas such as possibilities, permission, or intention.
Source: Gil Francopoulo

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1329 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


monolingual Sense Alignment

monolingual Sense Alignment; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4627

Identifier: monolingualSenseAlignment   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: The linking of two word senses from different word sense inventories via an explicit mapping.
Source: Adapted from SemLink, see http://verbs.colorado.edu/semlink/

Example: In SemLink, "put" in the VerbNet sense put-9.1-2 is aligned with "put" in the FrameNet sense "Placing" via the following mapping: <vncls class="9.1-2" vnmember="put" fnframe="Placing" fnlexent="5355" versionID="vn2.0"/>
Source: Adapted from SemLink, see http://verbs.colorado.edu/semlink/

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4627 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


morphological Head

morphological Head; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4617

Identifier: morphologicalHead   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: Used in morphology: a complex word shares most, if not all, properties with one of its constituents. The constituent that determines the properties of the complex word as a whole is called the head of that word.
Source: Adapted from Glottopedia: http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Head

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4617 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


multilingual Synset

multilingual Synset; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4629

Identifier: multilingualSynset   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A set of equivalent word senses from different languages, i.e. words from different languages that are interchangeable in some context without changing the meaning of the phrase in which they are embedded.
Source: Adapted from WordNet glossary: http://wordnet.princeton.edu/wordnet/man/wngloss.7WN.html

Example: The Englisch "sense" (A natural appreciation or ability.) and the German words "Sinn" and "Gefühl" (Eine natürliche Wertschätzung oder Fähigkeit.) form a multilingualSynset in OmegaWiki.
Source: http://www.omegawiki.org/DefinedMeaning:sense_%281153158%29

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4629 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


multiword Break Before

multiword Break Before; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4626

Identifier: multiwordBreakBefore   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A property of a multiword component: the possibility to break a multiword expression before the multiword component considered in order to insert additional constituents.
Source: Specified in FrameNet data, https://framenet.icsi.berkeley.edu/fndrupal/

Example: The multiword expression "take on" consists of two components: "take" and "on". The component "on" has multiwordBreakBefore = true, e.g. to take the job on.
Source: Adapted from FrameNet data, https://framenet.icsi.berkeley.edu/fndrupal/

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4626 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


negative particle

negative particle; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1894

Identifier: negativeParticle   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: particle

Definition: Particle used to express negation.
Source: Gil Francopoulo
Note: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1894 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


nominal Base

nominal Base; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4615

Identifier: nominalBase   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Is a: base

Definition: Used in morphology: a noun to which an affix attaches or to which a morphological process applies.
Source: Adapted from Glottopedia: http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Base_%28in_morphology%29

Example: From the English noun institution it is possible to form the adjective institutional by adding the suffix -al; in this example, institution is the nominalBase.
Source: Adapted from Glottopedia: http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Derivation_%28morphology%29

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4615 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


non Perspectivalized

non Perspectivalized; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4391

Identifier: nonPerspectivalized   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: FrameNet frames which have a great diversity of lexical units, all of which share a kind of scene as a background are called non-perspectivalized frames. Such frames do not have a consistent set of semantic arguments (FEs in FrameNet terminology) for the target predicates, a consistent time assigned to the events or participants, or (most especially) a consistent point-of-view between target predicates.
Source: Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice.

Example: An example of a non-perspectivalized frame is the Performers and roles frame, which contains such diverse verbs as co-star, feature.
Source: Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4391 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


non Predicative Adjective

non Predicative Adjective; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4618

Identifier: nonPredicativeAdjective   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: Adjectives that cannot be predicative.
Source: Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 13.48 (Non-predicative adjectives)

Example: English: "mere" is a nonPredicativeAdjective, e.g. The mere mention. vs. *The mention is mere.
Source: Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 13.48 (Non-predicative adjectives)

Example: German: "morgig" is a nonPredicativeAdjective, e.g. der morgige Besuch vs. *der Besuch ist morgig
Source: Helbig, Buscha (1996): Deutsche Grammatik, p. 314

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4618 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


note

note; standardized name
comment; admitted name
remark; admitted name
note; Source: ISO 12620:1999; data element name
comment; Source: Common usage; data element name
remark; Source: Common usage; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-382

Identifier: note   Type: complex/open   Origin: ISO 12620:1999   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A statement that provides further information on any part of a language resource entry.
Source: ISO12620

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-382 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


noun phrase

noun phrase; standardized name
NP; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2256

Identifier: nounPhrase   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: phrase headed by a noun
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2256 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


nucleus

nucleus; preferred name
nucleus; Source: ISO 12620:1999; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-357

Identifier: nucleus   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 12620:1999   Profile: Terminology

Definition: The component of a multiword or multi-morphemic compound term that is determined or modified by the other components making up the term.
Source: ISO12620

Example: ...
Source: ISO12620

Explanation: ...
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-357 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


numeral

numeral; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1334

Identifier: numeral   Type: simple   Origin: Prague Dependency Treebank, among others; Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Part of speech that expresses a number or the relation to a number.
Source: GF
Note: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1334 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Czech, French


numerical value

numerical value; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2211

Identifier: numValue   Type: complex/open   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Numerical value to be interpreted in context.
Source: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2211 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


object Complement

object Complement; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4625

Identifier: objectComplement   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A complement that is used to predicate a description of the direct object.
Source: Adapted from http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnObjectComplement.htm

Example: They made him the chairman.
Source: Adapted from http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnObjectComplement.htm

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4625 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


object Control

object Control; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4189

Identifier: objectControl   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Lexical Resources

Definition: A lexical property of verbs that take a subject, a direct object and an infinitival complement with to: for object control verbs, the direct object in the main clause is semantically an argument of the verb.
Source: EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Example: persuade is an object control verb, e.g. We persuaded him to stay.
Source: http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Note: In UBY, objectControl is considered a syntacticProperty, as suggested by the EGALES guidelines, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html: "Since many theories require a syntactic distinction between control and raising verbs, it is proposed that the distinction between control and raising verbs is obligatorily indicated in the syntactic representation in the EAGLES standard."

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4189 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


object Raising

object Raising; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4190

Identifier: objectRaising   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Lexical Resources

Definition: A lexical property of verbs that take a subject, a direct object and an infinitival complement with to: for object raising verbs, the direct object in the main clause is no semantic argument of the verb.
Source: EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Example: believe is an object raising verb, e.g. They believe him to be an informant.
Source: http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Note: In UBY, objectRaising is considered a syntacticProperty, as suggested by the EGALES guidelines, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html: "Since many theories require a syntactic distinction between control and raising verbs, it is proposed that the distinction between control and raising verbs is obligatorily indicated in the syntactic representation in the EAGLES standard."

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4190 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


optional Syntactic Argument

optional Syntactic Argument; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4622

Identifier: optionalSyntacticArgument   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: An optionalSyntacticArgument is a complement of a verb (or a noun or an adjective) that can be omitted.
Source: adapted from EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node53.html#4t6

Example: In the example "She paid the bill to her mother", the argument "the bill" is not an optionalSyntacticArgument, because it cannot be omitted: *She paid to her mother
Source: EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node53.html#4t6

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4622 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


orthography name

orthography name; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2176

Identifier: orthographyName   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Precision concerning the orthography
Source:
Note: For instance, an orthography name can be "arabic unpointed" or "arabic pointed"

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2176 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


part of speech

part of speech; preferred name
pos; admitted name
POS; admitted name
word class; admitted name
part of speech; Source: ISO 12620;ISO 30042; data element name
pos; Source: Short form; data element name
POS; Source: Short form; data element name
word class; Source: Variant; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-396

Identifier: partOfSpeech   Type: complex/closed   Origin: ISO 12620   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A category assigned to a word based on its grammatical and semantic properties.
Source: ISO12620

Example: noun
Source: ISO 12620:1999; SALT

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-396 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, German

Linguistic sections: German

Data type: string


adjective

adjective; standardized name
adjective; Source: ISO 12620; morphosyntax; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1230

Identifier: adjective   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 12620, morphosyntax group   Profiles: Morphosyntax, Terminology

Definition: Part of speech related to attributes of a noun.
Source: GF, morphosyntax
Note: We speak of an adjective when one can ask the question: how is something?

Example: A big horse
Source: www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1230 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


adverb

adverb; standardized name
adverb; Source: ISO 12620;ISO 30042; morphosyntax; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1232

Identifier: adverb   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 12620;ISO 30042; morphosyntax   Profiles: Morphosyntax, Terminology

Definition: Part of speech used to refer to a heterogeneous group of words whose most frequent function is to specify the mode of action of the verb.
Source: Based on Crystal 2003

Example: She threw the ball far, She threw the ball very far, An extremely big horse
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnAdposition.htm

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1232 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


verb

verb; standardized name
verb; Source: Morphosyntax; ISO 12620; ISO 30042; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1424

Identifier: verb   Type: simple   Origin: Morphosyntax; ISO 12620; ISO 30042   Profiles: Morphosyntax, Terminology

Definition: Element which, singly or in combination with other verbs is used as the minimal predicate of a sentence, co-occurring with a subject.
Source: Crystal 2003
Note: If the predicate contains other elements (e.g. object, complement), then it is the verb which more than any other is the unit which influences the choice and extent of these elements. A verb (in many languages) expresses morphological features like tense, mood or person.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1424 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


partitive definition

partitive definition; preferred name
partitive definition; Source: ISO 30042; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-172

Identifier: partitiveDefinition   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 30042   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A definition based on the enumeration of the concepts that refer to the main parts of an object covered by a superordinate concept in a partitive relation.
Source: ISO12620

Example: The standard computer workstation is made up of a CPU, a display terminal, variable user input interfaces (e.g., keyboards, mice, scanners, or any combination of these items), storage media (disk and tape drives and the like), and various output devices (e.g., printers, plotters, speakers, etc.).
Source: Mitre

Explanation: ...
Source: Mitre

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-172 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


partitive relation

partitive relation; standardized name
part-whole relation; admitted name
whole-part relation; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-397

Identifier: partitiveRelation   Type: complex/open   Origin: In 12620: 1999   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A relation between two concepts where one of the concepts constitutes the whole and the other concept a part of that whole.
Source: ISO12620

Example: There is a partitive relation between the concept peel and the concept apple.
Source: For definition of related term, see ISO 1087-1, 3.2.22.

Explanation: ...
Source: For definition of related term, see ISO 1087-1, 3.2.22.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-397 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


phonetic form

phonetic form; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1837

Identifier: phoneticForm   Type: complex/open   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Representation of the spoken string of a form
Source: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1837 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


possessive determiner

possessive determiner; standardized name
possessive adjective; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1357

Identifier: possessiveDeterminer   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: determiner

Definition: Determiner that expresses ownership.
Source: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1357 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


possessive pronoun

possessive pronoun; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1359

Identifier: possessivePronoun   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: pronoun

Definition: Pronoun that expresses ownership and relationships like ownership, such as kinship, and other forms of association.
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAPossessivePronoun.htm
Note: MAF

Example: Mine
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAPossessiveNoun.htm

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1359 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


postposition

postposition; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1360

Identifier: postposition   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: adposition

Definition: Adposition that appears at the end of the noun phrase.
Source: Gil Francopoulo

Example: Japanese: doko ni where at, doko e where to
Source:

Example: Korean: Hanguk e to Korea
Source:

Example: Hungarian: kutya nélkl dog without
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1360 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


postpositive Adjective

postpositive Adjective; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4619

Identifier: postpositiveAdjective   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: Adjectives that have to be in postposition ( i.e. following the noun or pronoun they modify) in order to express a particular sense. These adjectives have a different sense, if they occur attributively or predicatively.
Source: Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 5.18 (Postpositive)

Example: "proper" in the sense "as strictly defined" is a postpositiveAdjective, e.g. the City of London proper
Source: Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 5.18 (Postpositive)

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4619 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


predicative adjective

predicative adjective; admitted name
predicative adjective; Source: Przepiórkowski, A. (2009). A comparison of two morphosyntactic tagsets of Polish. In Proceedings of the Mondilex workshop in Warsaw, June 2009.; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2710

Identifier: adjc   Type: complex/open   Origin: Przepiórkowski, A. (2009). A comparison of two morphosyntactic tagsets of Polish. In Proceedings of the Mondilex workshop in Warsaw, June 2009.   Profile: undecided

Definition: non-inflecting adjectival class [adjc] of one-form lexemes consisting of forms which may only be used in predicative contexts (adjc)4, e.g., zdrów ‘healthy’ (cf. On wydaje się zdrów ‘He seems healthy’, but not *zdrów człowiek ‘healthy man’) or ciekaw ‘curious’ (e.g., Jestem ciekaw ‘I am curious’, but not *ciekaw człowiek ‘curious man’).
Source: Przepiórkowski, A. (2009). A comparison of two morphosyntactic tagsets of Polish. In Proceedings of the Mondilex workshop in Warsaw, June 2009.
Note: the definition was edited a little with respect to the original one

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2710 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Polish

Data type: string


preposition

preposition; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1366

Identifier: preposition   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: adposition

Definition: Adposition placed at the beginning of a noun phrase.
Source: MAF
Note: Usually, a preposition indicates position, direction, time or an abstract relation.

Example: into the woods
Source: www.atilf.fr AFFIXE

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1366 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


preposition Type

preposition Type; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4621

Identifier: prepositionType   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A node in a hierarchy of prepositions.
Source: Adapted from Karin Kipper, VERBNET: A BROAD-COVERAGE, COMPREHENSIVE VERB LEXICON. PhD Thesis, 2005.

Example: In the preposition hierarchy used in VerbNet, the prepositionType "dir" is subordinated to the prepositionType "path"; the prepositionType "dir" comprises prepositions such as across, along, around.
Source: Karin Kipper, VERBNET: A BROAD-COVERAGE, COMPREHENSIVE VERB LEXICON. PhD Thesis, 2005, p. 37 f.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4621 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


prepositional Complement

prepositional Complement; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4638

Identifier: prepositionalComplement   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: The complement of a verb (noun, adjective) that is realized as a prepositional phrase and that can be questioned by a pronominal question, but not by an adverbial question. Verbs that take prepositional complements are called prepositional verbs in English, see Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 12.19. In German, prepositional complements are often called "Präpositionalobjekt", see Helbig, Buscha (1996): Deutsche Grammatik, 13.3.3.5
Source: Adapted from Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 12.19 and from Helbig, Buscha (1996): Deutsche Grammatik, 13.3.3.5

Example: English: He insisted on staying. (*Where did he insist? vs. What did he insist on?)
Source: Adapted from Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 12.19

Example: German: Er besteht auf einer Neuausrichtung. (*Wo besteht er? vs. Worauf besteht er?)
Source: Adapted from Helbig, Buscha (1996): Deutsche Grammatik, 13.3.3.5

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4638 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


prepositional phrase

prepositional phrase; standardized name
PP; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2257

Identifier: prepositionalPhrase   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: phrase beginning by one or several prepositions and a complement such as a noun phrase
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2257 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


pronominal adverb

pronominal adverb; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2998

Identifier: pronominalAdverb   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Morphosyntax

Definition: adverb formed in replacement of a preposition and a pronoun
Source:

Example: "for that" => "therefore "
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2998 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


pronoun

pronoun; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1370

Identifier: pronoun   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Word used in place of a noun or a noun phrase.
Source: MAF
Note: In a lot of languages, a pronoun agrees with its antecedent in number, gender or/and case. Some theories use to call a pronoun a "substituting pronoun" to distinguish this term from "attributive pronoun"

Example: She
Source: www.atilf.fr PRONOMINAL B.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1370 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


proper noun

proper noun; standardized name
proper noun; Source: GF; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1371

Identifier: properNoun   Type: simple   Origin: Morphosyntax; Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: noun

Definition: Noun that is the name of a specific individual, place, or object.
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAProperNoun.htm
Note: MAF

Example: New York City
Source: ELM-FR:EAGLES Specifications for French

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1371 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


reflexive personal pronoun

reflexive personal pronoun; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3014

Identifier: reflexivePersonalPronoun   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: personal pronoun

Definition: personal pronoun which is reflexive
Source: STTS

Example: "sich" in German
Source: STTS

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3014 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


related concept

related concept; standardized name
pragmatic relation; admitted name
thematic relation; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-435

Identifier: relatedConcept   Type: complex/open   Origin: ?   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A concept that has an associative relation to another concept.
Source: ISO12620

Explanation: ...
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-435 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


related term

related term; preferred name
related term; Source: ISO 12620:1999; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-438

Identifier: relatedTerm   Type: complex/open   Origin: ISO 12620:1999   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A term connected to another term by a coordinate or associative relation.
Source: ISO12620

Explanation: ...
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-438 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


relative pronoun

relative pronoun; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1380

Identifier: relativePronoun   Type: simple   Origin: Prague Dependency Treebank, for example; Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: pronoun

Definition: Pronoun which introduces a relative clause and refers to something that has been said before.
Source: www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html + Canoonet
Note: Usually, the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in number and gender, while its case comes from its use in its own clause

Example: en: "whom" in "The man whom we saw is tall."
Source: www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1380 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Czech, French


relevant Semantic Predicate

relevant Semantic Predicate; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4392

Identifier: relevantSemanticPredicate   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A semantic predicate (Frame in FrameNet terminology) which is the parent of two semantic predicates in a FrameNet "Precedes" relation.
Source: Used in Uby to specify Predicate (i.e. Frame-to-Frame) relations from FrameNet.

Example: In FrameNet, the two semantic predicates "Trial" and "Sentencing" are in a Precedes relation and the relevantSemanticPredicate is the Criminal_Process frame.
Source: Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice, p. 77.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4392 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


sample sentence

sample sentence; preferred name
sample sentence; Source: ISO 30042; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-455

Identifier: sampleSentence   Type: complex/open   Origin: ISO 30042   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A sentence composed (frequently by a terminologist or language planner) to illustrate the use of a word or term in context in cases where contextual information is unavailable for a new term-concept pair.
Source: ISO12620

Example: ...
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

Explanation: Although contextual information should ideally be taken from actual texts written in the language in question, such contextual references may not exist for newly coined or suggested terms.
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-455 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


sound

sound; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2250

Identifier: sound   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: pronunciation that is on a record
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2250 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


source

source; standardized name
source; Source: ISO 12620:1999; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-471

Identifier: source   Type: complex/open   Origin: ISO 12620:1999   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A complete citation of the bibliographic information pertaining to a document or other resource.
Source: ISO12620

Example: Example 1: ISO 10241:1992, International Terminology Standards B preparation and layout; Example 2: Wuester, Eugen. 1968. The Machine Tool. London: Technical Press.
Source: ISO 12620:1999; SALT

Explanation: For instance, a standard number would constitute a complete bibliographic citation, or the complete documentation might be included in a term entry. In electronic database management environments, inclusion of each entire bibliographical source in each terminological entry can lead to the presence of redundant data within a collection.
Source: ISO 12620:1999; SALT

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-471 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


subcategorization Frame Set

subcategorization Frame Set; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4620

Identifier: subcategorizationFrameSet   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A set of subcategorization frames that groups different syntactic uses ("surface alternations") associated with the same deep structure or with the same meaning. A set of related subcategorization frames, i.e. different surface alternations explicitly linked.
Source: EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node36.html#SECTION00516000000000000000

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4620 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


subject

subject; admitted name
subject; Source: Member of MAF DCS; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1391

Identifier: subject   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Syntax

Definition: A word, phrase, or formal expression about which something is predicated or stated in a sentence.
Source: www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=subject

Example: The cat in the sentence: The cat catches mice.
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAStem.htm

Note: This statement is patently false!! The noun or pronoun that, with all its modifiers, immediately precedes the verb. He is defined entirely in terms of position. Not true in English: Here is the dog. Did you see him? I did, and so did my father. In German: Den Hund habe ich gestern gesehen. www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html Suggested definition: The person or thing that a sentence is about, that is performing an action, or being described. Source: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_subject_of_a_sentence

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1391 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


subject Complement

subject Complement; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4624

Identifier: subjectComplement   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A subject complement is a complement that is used to predicate a description of the subject of a clause.
Source: http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsASubjectComplement.htm

Example: He became a teacher.
Source: Adapted from Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 2.4

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4624 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


subject Control

subject Control; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4187

Identifier: subjectControl   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Lexical Resources

Definition: A lexical property of verbs that take a subject and an infinitival complement with to: for subject control verbs, the subject phrase of the main clause is semantically an argument of the verb.
Source: EAGLES http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Example: try is a subject control verb, e.g. He tried to exercise.
Source: http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Note: In UBY, subjectControl is considered a syntacticProperty, as suggested by the EGALES guidelines, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html: "Since many theories require a syntactic distinction between control and raising verbs, it is proposed that the distinction between control and raising verbs is obligatorily indicated in the syntactic representation in the EAGLES standard."

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4187 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


subject Raising

subject Raising; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4188

Identifier: subjectRaising   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Lexical Resources

Definition: A lexical property of verbs that take a subject and an infinitival complement with to: for subject raising verbs, the subject phrase of the main clause is no semantic argument of the verb.
Source: EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Example: seem is a subject raising verb, e.g. He seems to sleep.
Source: http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Note: In UBY, subjectRaising is considered a syntacticProperty, as suggested by the EGALES guidelines, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html: "Since many theories require a syntactic distinction between control and raising verbs, it is proposed that the distinction between control and raising verbs is obligatorily indicated in the syntactic representation in the EAGLES standard."

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4188 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


subordinating conjunction

subordinating conjunction; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1393

Identifier: subordinatingConjunction   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: conjunction

Definition: Conjunction that links constructions by making one of them a constituent of another. The subordinating conjunction typically marks the incorporated constituent.
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsASubordinatingConjunctio.htm
Note: MAF

Example: Listen when I speak to you
Source: www.hungarotips.com/hungarian/i/fonev1.html

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1393 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


synset

synset; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4613

Identifier: synset   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A synonym set; a set of words that are interchangeable in some context without changing the truth value of the preposition in which they are embedded.
Source: WordNet glossary: http://wordnet.princeton.edu/wordnet/man/wngloss.7WN.html

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4613 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


syntacticCategory

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1506

Identifier: syntacticCategory   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: A syntactic category is a set of words and/or phrases in a language which share a significant number of common characteristics. The classification is based on similar structure and sameness of distribution (the structural relationships between these elements and other items in a larger grammatical structure), and not on meaning.
Source: http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsASyntacticCategory.htm
Note: In generative grammar, a syntactic category is symbolized by a node label in a constituent structure tree.

Example: "Le petit chat mange la souris dans la salle de bain" : "le petit chat", "mange la souris", "la souris", "dans la salle de bain", "la salle de bain" are syntactic constituents.
Source: Susanne Salmon-Alt

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1506 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


target text

target text; preferred name
TT; admitted name
target text; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.35; data element name
TT; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.35; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4020

Identifier: targetText   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.35   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: A text produced as the result of the translation process.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.35

Explanation: A target text is based on the translation of a source text, which is not strictly speaking a "translation product," but the data category "source text" may be needed in a translation or localization environment in order to identify resources used in the translation process.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4020 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


taxonomy

taxonomy; preferred name
taxonomy; Source: ANSI Z39-19-2005; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4039

Identifier: taxonomy   Type: simple   Origin: ANSI Z39-19-2005   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Language Resource Ontology

Is a: controlled vocabulary

Definition: A collection of controlled vocabulary terms organized into a hierarchical structure.
Source: ANSI Z39-19-2005

Explanation: Each term in a taxonomy is in one or more parent/child (broader/narrower) relationships to other terms in the taxonomy.
Source: ANSI Z39-19-2005

Note: Although taxonomies can be considered to be a kind of language resource, they fall under the jurisdiction of ANSI Z39, which is the US TAG for ISO TC 46, which deals with library and information science.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4039 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


text

text; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1847

Identifier: text   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Series of sentences expressed in a natural language.
Source: Gil Francopoulo

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1847 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


that Type

that Type; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4623

Identifier: thatType   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A subordinate clause introduced by "that".
Source: Adapted from EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node40.html#SECTION00522000000000000000

Explanation: The specification of the clausal complement of particular verbs (or nouns, adjectives) must thus be completed with restricting features, such as thatType.
Source: Adapted from EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node40.html#SECTION00522000000000000000

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4623 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


toInfinitive

toInfinitive; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4162

Identifier: toInfinitive   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Lexical Resources

Definition: The non-finite verb form infinitive used with "to", as opposed to an infinitive used without "to". The German equivalent of "to" is "zu"; depending on the verb, "zu" can either precede the infinitive as in English or "zu" can be incorporated into the infinitive.
Source: Randolph Quirk et al., A grammar of Contemporary English (Longman)

Example: English: He likes to talk.
Source: Randolph Quirk et al., A grammar of Contemporary English (Longman)

Example: German: Wir freuen uns, ihn zu sehen.
Source: Helbig, Buscha, Deutsche Grammatik (Langenscheidt)

Example: German: Wir freuen uns, ihn abzuholen. (incorporated "zu")
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4162 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


translated definition

translated definition; preferred name
translated definition; Source: ISO 30042; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-173

Identifier: translatedDefinition   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 30042   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A definition that has been translated from another language.
Source: ISO12620

Example: ...
Source: Mitre

Explanation: Although it is ideal to document existing definitions that were originally created in a language, it is sometimes necessary to create translated definitions in consultation with mother-tongue experts in order to document innovative concepts that do not exist in the target culture.
Source: Mitre

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-173 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


translingual borrowing

translingual borrowing; standardized name
loan word; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-511

Identifier: translingualBorrowing   Type: simple   Origin: ?   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A term taken from a foreign language and perhaps naturalized.
Source: ISO12620

Example: de Raster ? en raster [no change in meaning: grid used for digitizing data] en handy ? de Handy [change in meaning: en adjective referring to anything that is convenient to use ? de cellular phone]
Source: ISO12620

Explanation: The source language can be indicated as an extension of the data category content; e.g., translingual borrowing from English. The relation between loan words in the target language and the original in the source language can be either one of identity (Raster-raster) or of semantic change (handy-Handy).
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-511 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


transparent Meaning

transparent Meaning; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4390

Identifier: transparentMeaning   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: If the syntactic head of a phrase is not its semantic center, it has a transparent meaning, i.e. it merely adds information to the semantic center of the phrase.
Source: adapted from Fillmore, C. J., C. F. Baker & H. Sato (2002). Seeing arguments through transparent structures. Proceedings of LREC 2002, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, pp. 787–791.

Example: Nouns with transparent meaning are , e.g. kind, liter, group. For instance, "I read that kind of book in college."
Source: Josef Ruppenhofer, Michael Ellsworth, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Christopher R. Johnson, and Jan Scheffczyk. 2010. FrameNet II: Extended Theory and Practice.

Example: Verbs with transparent meaning are, e.g., make as in "make a decision" or take as in "take a walk"
Source: Fillmore, C. J., C. F. Baker & H. Sato (2002). Seeing arguments through transparent structures. Proceedings of LREC 2002, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, pp. 787–791.

Explanation: Transparent nouns have transparent meaning, e.g. kind, liter, group. They typically occur in first position in a "Noun+of+Noun" construction for which the surrounding context selects, or is selected by, the second noun rather than the first. For instance, "I read that kind of book in college."
Source: Fillmore, C. J., C. F. Baker & H. Sato (2002). Seeing arguments through transparent structures. Proceedings of LREC 2002, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, pp. 787–791.

Explanation: Support verbs have transparent meaning, including both light verbs (such as make, take, have, give) and other verbs that add registral, aspectual, and other semantic aspects to the predication (e.g. register: make a complaint vs. file a complaint).
Source: Fillmore, C. J., C. F. Baker & H. Sato (2002). Seeing arguments through transparent structures. Proceedings of LREC 2002, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, pp. 787–791.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4390 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


type

type; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1971

Identifier: type   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profiles: Morphosyntax, Metadata

Definition: One member of a group of people or things that have similar features or qualities.
Source: Longma dictionary contemporay English 2005

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1971 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


usage note

usage note; preferred name
usage note; Source: ISO 30042; data element name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-526

Identifier: usageNote   Type: complex/open   Origin: ISO 30042   Profile: Terminology

Definition: A note containing information on the usage of the associated word or term.
Source: ISO12620

Example: ...
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

Explanation: ...
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-526 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


verb form mood

verb form mood; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1427

Identifier: verbFormMood   Type: complex/closed   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profiles: Morphosyntax, undecided

Definition: One of a set of distinctive forms that are used to signal modality. Modality is a facet of illocutionary point or general intent of a speaker, or a speaker's degree of commitment to the expressed proposition's believability, obligatoriness, desirability or reality.
Source: ISO12620

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1427 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Linguistic sections: English, French

Data type: string


imperative

imperative; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1844

Identifier: imperative   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Mood used to express an order.
Source: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1844 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


indicative

indicative; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1885

Identifier: indicative   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Mood value used in the expression of statements and questions.
Source: Crystal 2003
Note: Indicative is usually seen in contrast to imperative or subjunctive moods.

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1885 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


infinitive

infinitive; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1312

Identifier: infinitive   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Mood cited as unmarked or base form.
Source: Crystal 2003
Note: In English, then infinitive form may be used alone or in conjunction with the particle "to".

Example: To praise
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1312 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


subjunctive

subjunctive; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1843

Identifier: subjunctive   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Mood often used to express uncertainty, whishes or desires.
Source: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1843 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


verb phrase

verb phrase; standardized name
VP; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2255

Identifier: verbPhrase   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: phrase headed by a verb
Source:

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2255 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


verbal Base

verbal Base; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4614

Identifier: verbalBase   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Is a: base

Definition: Used in morphology: a verb to which an affix attaches or to which a morphological process applies.
Source: Adapted from Glottopedia: http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Base_%28in_morphology%29

Example: From the English verb institute it is possible to form the noun institution by suffixation of -ion; in this example, institute is the verbalBase.
Source: Adapted from Glottopedia: http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Derivation_%28morphology%29

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4614 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


wh type

wh type; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2296

Identifier: whType   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: property for a clause beginning by a question word
Source:
Note: in English, "who is he ?" is a whType question

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2296 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


written form

written form; standardized name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1836

Identifier: writtenForm   Type: complex/open   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Representation of the written string of a form
Source: MAF

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1836 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


yes no type

yes no type; standardized name
polar type; admitted name

PID: http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2297

Identifier: yesNoType   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: property for a clause where only a positive or a negative answer or position are possible
Source:
Note: in English, "Are you coming?" is a yesNoType question

License: This work by http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2297 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


Nametype
1AttestedVarietysimple
2Citationsimple
3Complementizersimple
4Compoundsimple
5Conjunctionsimple
6Determinersimple
7Expletivesimple
8FeminineGendersimple
9FirstPersonsimple
10GenderPropertysimple
11LexicalizedConceptsimple
12MasculineGendersimple
13NeuterGendersimple
14Nounsimple
15PTKANTsimple
16Participlesimple
17Particlesimple
18PastTensesimple
19PersonPropertysimple
20Predicatorsimple
21PresentTensesimple
22SecondPersonsimple
23SemanticAssignmentSystemsimple
24Subcategorization Frame Sample Sentencesimple
25SubordinateClausesimple
26TensePropertysimple
27ThirdPersonsimple
28VVIZUsimple
29VerbalParticlesimple
30accusative casesimple
31adjectival Basesimple
32adjectivesimple
33adjective phrasecomplex/open
34adverbsimple
35adverb phrasecomplex/open
36adverbial Complementsimple
37antonym termcomplex/open
38auxiliarysimple
39bare Infinitivesimple
40basesimple
41besimple
42casecomplex/closed
43circumpositionsimple
44common nounsimple
45comparative degreesimple
46comparative particlesimple
47complementcomplex/open
48contextcomplex/open
49coordinating conjunctionsimple
50coresimple
51core Unexpressedsimple
52corenesscomplex/closed
53corpussimple
54creation toolcomplex/open
55cross referencecomplex/open
56crosslingual Sense Alignmentsimple
57dative casesimple
58declarative clausecomplex/open
59degreecomplex/closed
60demonstrative determinersimple
61demonstrative pronounsimple
62derivativesimple
63determinersimple
64direct objectsimple
65domainFrequencysimple
66encyclopedic information (vernacular)complex/open
67etymologycomplex/open
68example (vernacular)complex/open
69extensional definitionsimple
70external referencecomplex/open
71external systemcomplex/open
72extra Thematicsimple
73frequencycomplex/closed
74genitive casesimple
75geographical variantcomplex/open
76grammatical functioncomplex/closed
77grammatical numbercomplex/closed
78havesimple
79hyphenationcomplex/open
80idiomsimple
81imperativesimple
82incorporated Semantic Argumentsimple
83indefinite determinersimple
84indefinite pronounsimple
85indicativesimple
86infinitivesimple
87infinitive particlesimple
88ing Formsimple
89intensional definitionsimple
90interjectionsimple
91interrogative determinersimple
92interrogative pronounsimple
93irreflexive personal pronounsimple
94labelcomplex/open
95language identifiercomplex/open
96lemmacomplex/open
97lexemecomplex/open
98light verbsimple
99locationcomplex/open
100main verbsimple
101modalsimple
102monolingual Sense Alignmentsimple
103morphological Headsimple
104multilingual Synsetsimple
105multiword Break Beforesimple
106negative particlesimple
107nominal Basesimple
108nominative casesimple
109non Perspectivalizedsimple
110non Predicative Adjectivesimple
111notecomplex/open
112noun phrasesimple
113nucleussimple
114numeralsimple
115numerical valuecomplex/open
116object Complementsimple
117object Controlsimple
118object Raisingsimple
119optional Syntactic Argumentsimple
120orthography namecomplex/open
121part of speechcomplex/closed
122partitive definitionsimple
123partitive relationcomplex/open
124peripheralsimple
125phonetic formcomplex/open
126pluralsimple
127positive degreesimple
128possessive determinersimple
129possessive pronounsimple
130postpositionsimple
131postpositive Adjectivesimple
132predicative adjectivecomplex/open
133prepositionsimple
134preposition Typecomplex/open
135prepositional Complementsimple
136prepositional phrasecomplex/open
137pronominal adverbsimple
138pronounsimple
139proper nounsimple
140reflexive personal pronounsimple
141related conceptcomplex/open
142related termcomplex/open
143relative pronounsimple
144relevant Semantic Predicatesimple
145sample sentencecomplex/open
146singularsimple
147soundcomplex/open
148sourcecomplex/open
149subcategorization Frame Setsimple
150subjectsimple
151subject Complementsimple
152subject Controlsimple
153subject Raisingsimple
154subjunctivesimple
155subordinating conjunctionsimple
156superlative degreesimple
157synsetsimple
158syntacticCategorycomplex/open
159target textsimple
160taxonomysimple
161textsimple
162that Typesimple
163toInfinitivesimple
164translated definitionsimple
165translingual borrowingsimple
166transparent Meaningsimple
167typecomplex/open
168usage notecomplex/open
169verbsimple
170verb form moodcomplex/closed
171verb phrasesimple
172verbal Basesimple
173wh typecomplex/open
174written formcomplex/open
175yes no typecomplex/open